PyDictObject
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  1. Language: Standard Library Headers: Freestanding and hosted implementations: Named requirements: Language support library: Concepts library (C20) Diagnostics.
  2. This is a glossary of C terms, organized alphabetically by concept. The definitions/explanations of individual terms are necessarily very brief. To compensate, each entry includes one or more references to The C Programming language (Special Edition) (TCPL) where you can find more comprehensive explanations and code examples.

Now to iterate a set in reverse direction, we need to create an reverseiterator and initialise it with set::rbegin. So that it points to the last element of set and then we will keep on access and increment the iterator to next till set::rend is reached i.e. Beginning of set. Dev-C translation in English-Portuguese dictionary. Cookies help us deliver our services. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies.

This subtype of PyObject represents a Python dictionary object.

PyTypeObjectPyDict_Type

This instance of PyTypeObject represents the Python dictionarytype. This is the same object as dict in the Python layer.

int PyDict_Check(PyObject *p)

Return true if p is a dict object or an instance of a subtype of the dicttype.

int PyDict_CheckExact(PyObject *p)

Return true if p is a dict object, but not an instance of a subtype ofthe dict type.

PyObject* PyDict_New()
Return value: New reference.

Return a new empty dictionary, or NULL on failure.

PyObject* PyDictProxy_New(PyObject *mapping)
Return value: New reference.

Return a types.MappingProxyType object for a mapping whichenforces read-only behavior. This is normally used to create a view toprevent modification of the dictionary for non-dynamic class types.

void PyDict_Clear(PyObject *p)

Empty an existing dictionary of all key-value pairs.

int PyDict_Contains(PyObject *p, PyObject *key)

Determine if dictionary p contains key. If an item in p is matcheskey, return 1, otherwise return 0. On error, return -1.This is equivalent to the Python expression keyinp.

PyObject* PyDict_Copy(PyObject *p)
Dev C%2b%2b DictionaryReturn value: New reference.

Return a new dictionary that contains the same key-value pairs as p.

int PyDict_SetItem(PyObject *p, PyObject *key, PyObject *val)

Insert val into the dictionary p with a key of key. key must behashable; if it isn’t, TypeError will be raised. Return0 on success or -1 on failure. This function does not steal areference to val.

int PyDict_SetItemString(PyObject *p, const char *key, PyObject *val)

Insert val into the dictionary p using key as a key. key shouldbe a constchar*. The key object is created usingPyUnicode_FromString(key). Return 0 on success or -1 onfailure. This function does not steal a reference to val.

int PyDict_DelItem(PyObject *p, PyObject *key)

Remove the entry in dictionary p with key key. key must be hashable;if it isn’t, TypeError is raised.If key is not in the dictionary, KeyError is raised.Return 0 on success or -1 on failure.

Dev C 2b 2b Dictionary Pdf

int PyDict_DelItemString(PyObject *p, const char *key)

Remove the entry in dictionary p which has a key specified by the string key.If key is not in the dictionary, KeyError is raised.Return 0 on success or -1 on failure.

PyObject* PyDict_GetItem(PyObject *p, PyObject *key)
Return value: Borrowed reference.

Return the object from dictionary p which has a key key. Return NULLif the key key is not present, but without setting an exception.

Note that exceptions which occur while calling __hash__() and__eq__() methods will get suppressed.To get error reporting use PyDict_GetItemWithError() instead.

PyObject* PyDict_GetItemWithError(PyObject *p, PyObject *key)
Return value: Borrowed reference.

Variant of PyDict_GetItem() that does not suppressexceptions. Return NULLwith an exception set if an exceptionoccurred. Return NULLwithout an exception set if the keywasn’t present.

PyObject* PyDict_GetItemString(PyObject *p, const char *key)
Return value: Borrowed reference.

This is the same as PyDict_GetItem(), but key is specified as aconstchar*, rather than a PyObject*.

Note that exceptions which occur while calling __hash__() and__eq__() methods and creating a temporary string objectwill get suppressed.To get error reporting use PyDict_GetItemWithError() instead.

PyObject* PyDict_SetDefault(PyObject *p, PyObject *key, PyObject *defaultobj)
Return value: Borrowed reference.

This is the same as the Python-level dict.setdefault(). If present, itreturns the value corresponding to key from the dictionary p. If the keyis not in the dict, it is inserted with value defaultobj and defaultobjis returned. This function evaluates the hash function of key only once,instead of evaluating it independently for the lookup and the insertion.

PyObject* PyDict_Items(PyObject *p)
Return value: New reference.

Return a PyListObject containing all the items from the dictionary.

PyObject* PyDict_Keys(PyObject *p)
Return value: New reference.

Return a PyListObject containing all the keys from the dictionary.

PyObject* PyDict_Values(PyObject *p)
Return value: New reference.

Return a PyListObject containing all the values from the dictionaryp.

Py_ssize_t PyDict_Size(PyObject *p)

Return the number of items in the dictionary. This is equivalent tolen(p) on a dictionary.

int PyDict_Next(PyObject *p, Py_ssize_t *ppos, PyObject **pkey, PyObject **pvalue)

Iterate over all key-value pairs in the dictionary p. ThePy_ssize_t referred to by ppos must be initialized to 0prior to the first call to this function to start the iteration; thefunction returns true for each pair in the dictionary, and false once allpairs have been reported. The parameters pkey and pvalue should eitherpoint to PyObject* variables that will be filled in with each keyand value, respectively, or may be NULL. Any references returned throughthem are borrowed. ppos should not be altered during iteration. Itsvalue represents offsets within the internal dictionary structure, andsince the structure is sparse, the offsets are not consecutive.

For example:

The dictionary p should not be mutated during iteration. It is safe tomodify the values of the keys as you iterate over the dictionary, but onlyso long as the set of keys does not change. For example:

int PyDict_Merge(PyObject *a, PyObject *b, int override)

Iterate over mapping object b adding key-value pairs to dictionary a.b may be a dictionary, or any object supporting PyMapping_Keys()and PyObject_GetItem(). If override is true, existing pairs in awill be replaced if a matching key is found in b, otherwise pairs willonly be added if there is not a matching key in a. Return 0 onsuccess or -1 if an exception was raised.

int PyDict_Update(PyObject *a, PyObject *b)

This is the same as PyDict_Merge(a,b,1) in C, and is similar toa.update(b) in Python except that PyDict_Update() doesn’t fallback to the iterating over a sequence of key value pairs if the secondargument has no “keys” attribute. Return 0 on success or -1 if anexception was raised.

int PyDict_MergeFromSeq2(PyObject *a, PyObject *seq2, int override)

Update or merge into dictionary a, from the key-value pairs in seq2.seq2 must be an iterable object producing iterable objects of length 2,viewed as key-value pairs. In case of duplicate keys, the last wins ifoverride is true, else the first wins. Return 0 on success or -1if an exception was raised. Equivalent Python (except for the returnvalue):

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The #define creates a macro, which is the association of an identifier or parameterized identifier with a token string. After the macro is defined, the compiler can substitute the token string for each occurrence of the identifier in the source file.

Syntax

#defineidentifiertoken-stringopt
#defineidentifier(identifieropt, .. ,identifieropt)token-stringopt

Remarks

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The #define directive causes the compiler to substitute token-string for each occurrence of identifier in the source file. The identifier is replaced only when it forms a token. That is, identifier is not replaced if it appears in a comment, in a string, or as part of a longer identifier. For more information, see Tokens.

The token-string argument consists of a series of tokens, such as keywords, constants, or complete statements. One or more white-space characters must separate token-string from identifier. This white space is not considered part of the substituted text, nor is any white space that follows the last token of the text.

A #define without a token-string removes occurrences of identifierDownload free indian flute music. from the source file. The identifier remains defined and can be tested by using the #if defined and #ifdef directives.

The second syntax form defines a function-like macro with parameters. This form accepts an optional list of parameters that must appear in parentheses. After the macro is defined, each subsequent occurrence of identifier( identifieropt, .., identifieropt ) is replaced with a version of the token-string argument that has actual arguments substituted for formal parameters.

Formal parameter names appear in token-string to mark the locations where actual values are substituted. Each parameter name can appear multiple times in token-string, and the names can appear in any order. The number of arguments in the call must match the number of parameters in the macro definition. Liberal use of parentheses guarantees that complex actual arguments are interpreted correctly.

The formal parameters in the list are separated by commas. Each name in the list must be unique, and the list must be enclosed in parentheses. No spaces can separate identifier and the opening parenthesis. Use line concatenation — place a backslash () immediately before the newline character — for long directives on multiple source lines. The scope of a formal parameter name extends to the new line that ends token-string.

When a macro has been defined in the second syntax form, subsequent textual instances followed by an argument list indicate a macro call. The actual arguments that follows an instance of identifier in the source file are matched to the corresponding formal parameters in the macro definition. Each formal parameter in token-string that is not preceded by a stringizing (#), charizing (#@), or token-pasting (##) operator, or not followed by a ## operator, is replaced by the corresponding actual argument. Any macros in the actual argument are expanded before the directive replaces the formal parameter. (The operators are described in Preprocessor operators.)

The following examples of macros with arguments illustrate the second form of the #define syntax:

Arguments with side effects sometimes cause macros to produce unexpected results. A given formal parameter may appear more than one time in token-string. If that formal parameter is replaced by an expression with side effects, the expression, with its side effects, may be evaluated more than one time. (See the examples under Token-Pasting Operator (##).)

The #undef directive causes an identifier's preprocessor definition to be forgotten. See The #undef Directive for more information.

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If the name of the macro being defined occurs in token-string (even as a result of another macro expansion), it is not expanded.

A second #define for a macro with the same name generates a warning unless the second token sequence is identical to the first.

Microsoft Specific

Microsoft C/C++ lets you redefine a macro if the new definition is syntactically identical to the original definition. In other words, the two definitions can have different parameter names. This behavior differs from ANSI C, which requires that the two definitions be lexically identical.

For example, the following two macros are identical except for the parameter names. ANSI C does not allow such a redefinition, but Microsoft C/C++ compiles it without error.

On the other hand, the following two macros are not identical and will generate a warning in Microsoft C/C++.

END Microsoft Specific

Dev C 2b 2b Dictionary Ap

This example illustrates the #define directive:

The first statement defines the identifier WIDTH as the integer constant 80 and defines LENGTH in terms of WIDTH and the integer constant 10. Each occurrence of LENGTH is replaced by (WIDTH + 10). In turn, each occurrence of WIDTH + 10 is replaced by the expression (80 + 10). The parentheses around WIDTH + 10 are important because they control the interpretation in statements such as the following:

After the preprocessing stage the statement becomes:

which evaluates to 1800. Without parentheses, the result is:

which evaluates to 280.

Microsoft Specific

Defining macros and constants with the /D compiler option has the same effect as using a #define preprocessing directive at the start of your file. Up to 30 macros can be defined by using the /D option.

END Microsoft Specific

See also