CHAPTER 4 Analysis of Mass Effect
1 Mass Effect 1.1 Character-Specific Assignments 1.1.1 Shepard's Background 1.1.2 Squad Member Assignments 1.2 Citadel Assignments 1.2.1 General 1.2.2 Second Visit 1.2.3 Detainee Visit 1.3 Charted Planet Assignments 1.3.1 Feros 1.3.2 Noveria 1.3.3 Virmire 1.4 Galaxy-Wide Assignments 1.4.1 Galaxy Collection Assignments 1.4.2 Uncharted Space Assignments 1.4.3 Morality-dependent Assignments 1.5. EXCELLENT Mass Effect 3 Serial Key Generator 2013 PS3 XBOX PC) Men of War Assault Squad Keygen.
- Click the button below to add the Mass Effect 1 CD Key for Origin to your wish list. Related Products. Mass Effect 3 CD Key for Origin. Mass Effect 2 - CD Key for Origin. Mass Effect 3 N7 Digital Deluxe CD Key for Origin. Mass Effect Andromeda CD Key for Origin.
- Its in HKEYCURRENTUSER. Not in HKEYLOCALMACHINE as the article; ARTICLE: FINDING MASS EFFECT SERIAL KEY says.
Prior to the advent of cross-sectional imaging, intracranial masses were localized and characterized by catheter angiography or other invasive techniques such as pneumoventriculography, pneumocisternography, and metrizamide ventriculography/cisternography.1,2 CT and MRI are now the modalities of choice for evaluation of intracranial space-occupying lesions. Catheter angiography is now largely reserved for further characterization of and therapy for vascular intracranial lesions (e.g., preoperative evaluation and embolization of meningioma).
Mass effect may be due to direct displacement of intracranial contents by discrete space-occupying lesions, such as benign and malignant neoplasms, non-neoplastic masses (e.g., arachnoid cyst), localized hemorrhage, or abscess. Mass effect may also be caused by brain swelling or edema. The pathophysiology of abnormal accumulation of fluid within the brain parenchyma is complex.3 Edema may be described in terms of etiology (osmotic, hydrostatic, hyperemic), microscopic location (extracellular or intracellular), or macroscopic anatomic location (e.g., gray matter vs. white matter). In simple terms based on physical location with regard to cell membranes, brain edema may be classified as vasogenic (extracellular) or cytotoxic (intracellular). Although these two descriptors of edema in reality often coexist and are not mutually exclusive, cerebral edema, on imaging, is often described as one or the other. In simple terms, cytotoxic edema demonstrates reduced diffusion (reduced apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]) whereas vasogenic edema does not (normal or increased ADC). Cytotoxic edema is more prominently found in gray matter, whereas vasogenic edema is more prominent in white matter. The causes of cerebral edema are myriad. Examples include regional cytotoxic edema due to ischemic infarct, local or regional vasogenic edema associated with tumor or infection, post-traumatic edema, and generalized cerebral edema due to diffuse insult such as hypoxia/ischemia.4
According to the Monro-Kellie hypothesis, the intact calvaria creates a fixed intracranial space5 that under normal conditions contains (1) brain (and its meningeal coverings), (2) blood (within vessels and dural venous sinuses), and (3) cerebrospinal fluid (within the subarachnoid space and ventricles).6 Although the pathophysiology of intracranial pressure/volume relationships is indeed much more complex,7 this basic understanding of the Monro-Kellie hypothesis is sufficient for the beginning radiologist. A corollary to this hypothesis for the radiologist is that under normal conditions the intracranial contents demonstrate a clearly defined midline with bilateral symmetry. Any disruption of this normal equilibrium (e.g., a space-occupying lesion and/or edema) may change the appearance of the contents of the intracranial space.
Clues to the extra-axial location of a tumor (Fig. 4-3) may include displacement of pial vessels subjacent to the mass, buckling of the gray matter/white matter junction, widening of the adjacent subarachnoid space, a “cleft” of CSF between the brain parenchyma and the mass, a wide base along the dural or calvarial surface, and changes within the adjacent bone such as hyperostosis associated with meningioma (Fig. 4-4) or smooth scalloping associated with epidermoid (Fig. 4-5).9,10Tdl source code free download.
The subarachnoid space, between arachnoid and pia, normally contains CSF. The subarachnoid space (SAS) may be subdivided into the peripheral SAS and the basal cisterns. Subarachnoid hemorrhage may present as high density within these CSF spaces (Fig. 4-6). The subdural space, between dura and arachnoid, is normally a potential (collapsed) space. Subdural hematoma results from accumulation of blood products between the dura and arachnoid (Fig. 4-7). The dura is normally adherent to the periosteum of the inner table. Hematomas accumulating between the dura and periosteum are termed epidural or extradural (Fig. 4-8).