Even without knowing the details of that particular WaA number, we know that Germany didn’t control the Austrian Steyr plant until the 1938 anschluss. This particular carbine has the tall rifle sight, indicating that it was made by cutting down a full-length M95 rifle in the early/mid 1930s. The rifle is fully functioning and all of the serial numbers match. As designated by the “bnz” manufacturer’s code, the rifle was made by Steyr-Daimler-Puch in Austria. Steyr manufactured approximately 85,000 Kar-98K rifles for the SS in 1944; based on the “DR” marked barrel, this rifle was made in August- September 1944.

I pulled the stock of my 'new-to-me' Mannlicher with the hope of dating the gun. (I was surprised to find that a comprehensive code of serial numbers and dates did not exist for the commercial sporters, but hoped I'd find an internal date on the gun.) I knew the gun was post-1912 based on the proofs. The name on the scope (Emil Kerner & Sohn) provided another clue as the '& Sohne' nomenclature first shows up in the mid-1920s. Free download gta 5 setup exe for pc.

This is standard numbering for Mannlicher. But collectors of German sniper rifles have reassembled most of the major model transitions and serial number. STEYR MANNLICHER LUXUS Model M. Comes from the hammer forging process that Steyr is famous for. The model M action is still used on.

The serial number on the gun is 9857 and the serial number on the scope is 6581. (This is an original M-S in 6.5x54 with the original Zeiss Zeilvier 4x scope in claw mounts. ) Once I got the gun apart I did not find the date code (or at least the date code in the form I expected to find it.) Stamped in two spots on the underside of the action were the numbers '14037*.19.'

I am not sure how to interpret that code. Anyone have any insight?

Below are a few photos of the gun: #222446 - 03/21/11 12:34 AM Re: 1903 Mannlicher-Schoenauer - Dates [] Sidelock Registered: 12/31/01 Posts: 6881 Loc: Alaska. Based on the serial number and location of the markings on the scope it was made in 1923 or early 1924, so was added by Kerner a few years after the rifle was made. Zeiss production records were destroyed during the war, but collectors of German sniper rifles have reassembled most of the major model transitions and serial number sequences. Beautiful little rifle, by the way. I may have a sling or two that would be appropriate for it; I'll take a look in my gun room to see what I have available. Edited by Peconga ( 03/24/11 04:34 PM) #222981 - 03/24/11 05:44 PM Re: 1903 Mannlicher-Schoenauer - Dates [] Boxlock Registered: 06/14/10 Posts: 21. Updated every minute of everyday!

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presents

HISTORICFIREARM OF THE MONTH,
October2001:

Steyr Rifle Serial Numbers

The NorwegianM1894 Krag-Jorgensen Rifle
Type: Bolt Action Rifle
Systemof Operation: Manual
Caliber: 6.5x55mm
Capacity: 5 rounds
Sights,front: Windage Adjustable Blade
Sights,rear: Tangent, V or U-notch
Length:50'
Weight(unloaded): 8 lbs 15 ozs
Barrel:30.07', 4 grooves, left hand twist

HISTORYAND MECHANISM
It is an interestinghistorical footnote that while the Krag-Jorgensen (or 'Krag') rifle originatedin Norway, the Norwegian armed forces were the last to adopt it. In the autumn of 1893, a combined Swedish- Norwegian Army commission metin Christiania (now Oslo), Norway to consider the adoption of a commonservice rifle cartridge. The conference's conclusion saw the adoptionof a common cartridge - the rimless 6.5x55mm, but no agreement on a commonrifle. The reason for the inability to agree on a common rifle isopen to conjecture. At the time of the conference, Norway and Swedenwere ruled by one royal house, much to the Norwegians' chagrin. Afteryears of chafing under the Swedish yoke, the Norwegians were more thanhappy to find any difference to exploit. Doubtless, the fact thatthe Krag was a home grown design factored into the matter as well. In any event, the issue was settled in 1894 when Norway adopted a productimproved Krag while Sweden adopted the Mauser.

TheNorwegian Model 1894 Krag- Jorgensen rifle has an action that is at thesame time very similar to the US Model 1892 Krag rifle and different fromthe Danish Model 1889 Krag rifle. Key departures from the Danishpattern include a Mauser type leaf safety, a horizontally pivoting loadinggate (the Danish Krag had a vertically pivoted gate), a turned down bolthandle, and a large knob on the end
NorwegianKrag Action
Photo by PeteDeMeo
of the cockingpiece to permit manual cocking. Additional differences include abolt actuated, pivoting ejector vice the M1889's spring loaded ejector. The Mauser type safety is fixed to the bolt sleeve with a screw, and isof a one-piece design, dispensing with the screw and plunger found on thesafeties of many contemporary rifles. When the leaf is turned tothe right the safety is actuated, blocking the cocking piece and preventingthe bolt's being opened.
NorwegianKrag Loading Gate Open, Top View
Photo by PeteDeMeo
Asnoted above, the loading gate pivots downward instead of forward, thusserving as a loading platform when open and minimizing the chance thata cartridge will be inadvertently dropped. The gate is held closedby a unique multipurpose curved, leaf type spring that doubles as the magazinespring, eliminating the need for a separate gate spring and latch as foundon
the M1889. That is to say, in addition to holding the gate closed, the spring alsoacts on the follower arm to feed the cartridges, holds the gate open duringloading and assists in closure and keeping the gate shut.

Another departurefrom the Danish design can be found while looking at the magazine box. On the M1889, the magazine box is a separate unit, fixed to the receiver. On the US and Norwegian rifles, the magazine box is integral to the receiverforging. As a result, the the structural integrity and rigidity ofthe receiver is increased considerably, but is far more difficult to machine,manufacture and heat treat. /shadow-defender-serial-key/. A sideplate with a concave inner surfacethat is held to the receiver by the cut-off spindle forms the left wallof the magazine box and also serves as a cartridge guide. Both thegate and sideplate are easily removed for cleaning without the use of tools.

As with manyother bolt action military rifles of the time, the M1894 incorporated amechanism to hold the bolt to the rear after the last round in the magazinehas been fired. Early versions of the M1894 had a small coil springto push the rear end of the magazine sideplate inward so as to engage thebolt face an prevent forward motion. In the event, this mechanismproved to be too fragile and was removed from the early rifles and omittedfrom later ones. A small lip on the underside of the extractorengages a notch in the receiver bridge, holding the bolt to the rear byfriction, and preventing it from sliding forward when the muzzle is tilteddown - convenient when the rifle was used as a single loader!

Besides beingturned down below horizontal, the M1894's bolt handle is bent slightlyto the rear, closer to the firing/manipulating hand, and has an oversizedknob designed for easy grasping. These features contribute in nosmall part to the Krag's reputation for fast handling and easy bolt manipulation. (Note: While the bolt handle of the M1889 Krag is also bent slightlyto the rear, but the straight bolt handle does not make for the same easeof operation as the bent handle.) The M1894's speed of operationis also enhanced by an eighty degree bolt throw (as compared to ninetyfor most Mausers).

Like the DanishKrag rifles, the M1894 actually has two locking lugs: The singleforward locking lug and the elongated bolt guide rib both bear on the receiverto provide two locking surfaces. Despite this additional safeguard,Krags should not be considered suitable for second generation, high pressurecartridges such as the 7.62mm NATO. One Scandinavian expert, NilsKvale, proffered this analysis of the Krag receiver:

Oneweak spot on the Krag receiver is the corner near the rib on the bolt whenthe bolt is in the closed position. On the early Norwegian made Kragsthis was a sharp corner, and whenever there was a failure in one of thesereceivers, the crack seemed to start at the sharp corner. On thelater production the corner was slightly rounded, which made it stronger.
Other experts,notably Hardy Ahlgreen, a Chief Inspector at the Kongsberg Arms Factory,state that the M1894 action, while suitable for conversion to 7x57mm Mauser,would not prove strong enough for conversion to 7.62mm NATO.
Thestrength afforded by the 'dual' locking lug system had its price though. Getting the locking lug and bolt guide rib to bear against the receiverproperly required a great deal of hand fitting, and thus was not conduciveto easy mass production. Additionally, a significant number of complexmachining operations was necessary to make the magazine box integral tothe receiver. This in itself was a challenging task which requiredthe
NorwegianKrag Bolt. Note the single conventional locking lug at the forwardend of the bolt and the guide rib that serves as an auxiliary locking lugalong the side
Photo by PeteDeMeo
machinist to havespecial skills, as well as the workers involved in heat treatment.
NorwegianKrag Bolt Face and Bolt Head, showing position of extractor relative towhere the cartridge head would be.
Photo by PeteDeMeo
The M1894 differs from the Danish and American Krags in that it incorporatesfeatures designed to prevent double loading. (Double loading is aphenomenon that occurs when there is an attempt to feed a cartridge fromthe magazine while there is a cartridge already in the chamber.) Double loading can happen in almost any bolt action rifle when the boltis not turned to the locked position after a cartridge is chambered, subsequentto which the bolt is reciprocated to chamber another round. In thebest case, a feed jam occurs. In the worst case there is an accidentaldischarge when the nose of the incoming cartridge strikes the primer of
the chamberedcartridge. This problem is addressed in the M1894 as follows: As the 6.5mm cartridge is pushed forward by the bolt, the rim engages underneaththe extractor hook prior to the round's clearing the magazine box. The cartridge is thus under the control of the extractor from the timeit leaves the magazine until ejection, preventing double loading.

The M1894 usesa coil type sear spring while the M1889 uses a leaf type sear spring. In both rifles, however, the trigger mechanism is of the two-stage typein which the sear is partially disengaged from the cocking piece duringthe first stage, where the slack is taken up, and is fully disengaged duringthe second stage. Two fulcrum humps on the trigger produce the twodistinct stages. This system is found on many military bolt actionrifle designs and provides generous initial sear engagement with the cockingpiece so as to provide a large safety margin, while at the same time thefinal engagement is small enough so as to give a reasonably light and crisplet-off. In some M1894's the rear hump of the trigger bears againsta small screw in the receiver tang after the slack is taken up by the preliminarypull. Turning this screw adjusts the amount of sear engagement withthe cocking piece during the final stage of the pull and thus makes itpossible to reduce creep. The adjusting screw in the receiver tangis accessible after removing the bolt. Another fire control improvementis a leaf spring that bears upward against the cocking piece to keep itin uniform engagement with the sear. This spring is riveted in thecocking piece groove of the receiver tang.

Steyr Mannlicher Rifle Serial Numbers

Therear sight is a tangent type, adjustable only for elevation. On someM1894's the sighting notch is of the U-type and on others it is of theV-type. The inverted V front sight is adjustable for windage by meansof a small windage screw on the sight base. The screw head has twosmall holes instead of a slot, and a special spanner is required to turnthe screw. Some M1894's have a windage adjustment locking screw whileothers do not.

The M1894 hasa one-piece stock with a pistol grip, and is made of walnut, birch or beech. One interesting feature is the reinforcing screw in the pistol grip. The upper band has an idiosyncratic swivel with a ring at the front anda hook to the rear. The hook is used to shorten the sling for paradesand the ring is used for stacking arms. To

NorwegianKrag Rear Sight. This is the improved model fitted to the M1912 shortrifle and incorporating a windage adjustment
Photo by PeteDeMeo
shorten the sling,the quick-detachable sling swivel is removed from the swivel base at theheel of the buttstock and mounted on a hole in the forward part of thetriggerguard. A metal loop on the sling is then fastened to the hook. The cleaning rod is removed from the fore-end for stacking arms, and isinserted through the rings of the rifles to be held together in the stack.

The cleaningrod is about half as long as the barrel, and is screwed to rods from otherrifles to make a rod of sufficient length to clean the bore or remove obstructions. An oil container and other accessories are carried in a tunnel bored intothe stock and capped by the buttplate trap.

The M1894's30' barrel is rather unique in that it has rifling with a left hand twist,and its shank has left hand threads. The effect is that the torquecreated when the rifle is fired twists the rifle away from the firer'scheek instead of into it. The combination of left hand twist riflingand barrel threading has the added benefit of helping to maintain firmseating of the barrel in the receiver. The diameter of the barrelat the muzzle end is approximately 15mm.

The first 20,000M1894 rifles (serial numbers 1 - 20000) were produced in Steyr, Austriaby the Austrian Arms Company. The next 10,000 (serial numbers 20001- 30000) were produced in Norway at the Kongsberg Arms Factory, with thefollowing 9,000 (serial numbers 30001 - 39000) being made in Steyr. The remainder of the series (approximately 113,000 - serial number 39001- 152000) were made at Kongsberg. Separately serial numbered runsof M1894's were made by Kongsberg for the Norwegian Navy and National RifleAssociation. M1894's with serial numbers in the range 89601 to 90601were equipped with telescopic sights. The scope was of the straighttube variety, mounted low and to the left.

Fit and finishon early M1894's was excellent, with the finish being of almost a commercialgrade. Over time, the quality of the finish declined, but workmanshipand fit were always top notch. The M1894 was kept in limited productionduring the German occupation of Norway during the Second World War. These rifles can be identified by the year of manufacture stamping on thereceiver ring and the substandard finish. Some of these rifles wereused by German occupation forces and others on ships of the Kriegsmarine. They were also used as training rifles by Norwegian troops who fought forthe Germans (these troops carried Mauser K98k's in combat).

Some Model1894's were converted to short rifles during World War Two. The conversionconsisted of shortening the barrel to 24', shortening the fore-end, installingconventional sling swivels, and removing the original date stamp and replacingit with a stamping noting the year of conversion. Often, these rifleswill bear the marking 'NC' and Waffenamt acceptance markings. TheNC is reported to be a nitrocellulose proof mark - the Norwegian servicecartridge was loaded with nitroglycerine type powder and the use of nitrocellulosepowder for proofing was a nonstandard practice. While there is someindication that the conversions were done by Steyr, there is no hard evidence.

Carbine modelswere also produced. The Model 1895 Cavalry Carbine had a 20.5' barreland a half length forearm that gives it the general appearance of a sporterizedlong rifle. Chambered for the same 6.5x55mm as the M1894 rifle, ituses a similar tangent rear sight. Other recognition features includea short handguard extending from the receiver ring to the rear sight, asling swivel mounted on the left side of the single barrel band, and, onearly guns, a mounting point for the rear sling swivel immediately behindthe pistol grip. In 1908 the rear swivel point was replaced by aswivel on the left side of the triggerguard. A variation of the Model1895 with the rear sling swivel mounting point about 4' forward of thebuttplate is called the Model 1897 Mountain Artillery and Engineer Carbine.

The Model 1904Engineer Carbine also had a 20.5' barrel, but had a fore-end similar tothe M1894 rifle, which extended to within a few inches of the muzzle. The handguard extends from the receiver ring to the end of the fore-end,and a similar sling shortening/stacking swivel is provided. Thereis no bayonet lug. The Model 1906 Boy's Carbine was a commercialoffering, and was not used by Norwegian armed forces. It had a 20.5'barrel, a half length forearm, no handguard, and was generally similarin appearance to the Model 1897 Carbine.

Serial

The Model 1907Field Artillery Carbine was similar to the Model 1904 Engineer Carbinewith the exception of the sling swivels. The front sling swivel ison the lower band while the rear is on the butt. From 1905 to 1907,Norwegian field artillery units were armed with the Model 1895 cavalrycarbine. Model 1895, 1897, 1904, and 1907 are in the same serialnumber range.

NorwegianModel 1914 Krag Carbine with original sling and long bayonet. Thelong bayonet and the sling are extremely rare.
Photo by PeteDeMeo
TheModel 1912 Carbine was a significant departure from earlier carbine configurations. It is stocked nearly to the muzzle and has a 24' barrel, and appears tobe more of a short rifle than a true carbine. The design was heavilyinfluenced by the British Short Magazine Lee-Enfield (SMLE), as is evidencedby the full length fore-end and handguard,
lightweight barrel,and upper band mounted bayonet boss. Model 1912's in serial numberrange 1 - 21678 have a flat bolt handle knob with the flats knurled, whilethose from 21679 onward have a conventional round bolt knob. Theearly design
forthe Model 1912's nosecap/upper band proved to be too weak to withstandthe rigors of service usage, and a broad reinforcing band that circledthe upper band, fore-end and handguard was introduced in 1916, eventuallybeing made as a single piece with the upper band.

Another featureunique to the M1912 is that the rear sight is mounted immediately forwardof the receiver. This provides a long sighting radius, but may positionthe sight too close to the shooting eye. Interestingly, the Model1912 was sold in large numbers on the US surplus market in the 1950's,and is the Norwegian Krag model most commonly found in the US.

CONCLUSION
The NorwegianKrag rifles provide fertile ground for the historian and collector. Indeed, the rifle is emblematic of both the resistance and the collaborationistforces operating in Norway during World War Two. Exceptionally wellmade, with an action whose smoothness is the envy of custom

NorwegianKrag M1912 Bolt Handle and Upper Band
Photo by PeteDeMeo
rifle makers tothis day, the Norwegian Krag was accurate, reliable, and well suited forthe 6.5mm service cartridge for which it was chambered. Unfortunately,they are few and far between today, and specimens in nice shape can commandprices ranging from $500 to $1500. Additionally, Norwegian 6.5mmservice ammunition is known to be somewhat more lightly loaded than thereadily available Swedish 6.5x55mm ammunition or commercial sporting ammunitionof that caliber, so shooting a Norwegian Krag may be a questionable prospectat best. Despite these issues, the owner of a Norwegian Krag cancount him or herself lucky indeed, for it is a true cruffler gem!

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Mallory, FranklinB. and Ludwig Olson, The Krag Rifle Story, 2nd Edition, (SpringfieldResearch Service, Silver Spring, Maryland: 2001)

Steyr 1900 Rifle Serial Numbers

The KragRifle Story is available from Scott Duff Publications. Pleaseclick on the image to order.

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